Childbirth is a transformative event, yet it can give rise to perineal lacerations or tearing, causing discomfort and potential complications for mothers. This article explores contemporary research findings and evidence-based approaches aimed at mitigating perineal lacerations during labor and delivery.

Perineal lacerations, tears occurring between the vaginal opening and the anus, can lead to pain, sexual dysfunction, and even psychological distress if not properly managed. We explore diverse techniques that healthcare professionals can adopt to reduce the risk of perineal lacerations, thus improving postpartum outcomes for birthing people.

Anatomy and Physiology

The perineum, the area between the anus and the vaginal opening, is prone to lacerations during childbirth. Understanding perineal anatomy is pivotal in preventing and addressing lacerations. Perineal lacerations are categorized into four degrees:

First Degree: Involves the perineal skin and may extend to the vaginal mucosa.

Second Degree: Extends to the vaginal mucosa and muscular layer.

Third Degree: Encompasses the anal sphincter, further divided based on tear severity.

Fourth Degree: Extends to the rectal mucosa.

Severe perineal lacerations, like third and fourth-degree tears, are termed Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS).

Risk Factors and Indications

Perineal lacerations are commonplace during childbirth, affecting up to 89% of women. Severe lacerations, particularly OASIS, can lead to enduring complications. Risk factors include advanced maternal age, high pre-gestational IBM, nulliparity, VBAC, giving birth at the hospital, pitocin administration during second stage of labour, prolonged second stage of labour, and gestational diabetes.

Episiotomy and Preventive Techniques

Episiotomy, once routinely performed, is not recommended for preventing perineal tearings due to a lack of substantial evidence supporting its use. Both the World Health Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend its judicious application. Strategies to prevent perineal lacerations encompass birthing outside of the hospitals and be assisted by midwives. Perineal massage exhibits potential benefits in mitigating laceration severity and promoting perineal relaxation and warm compresses may demonstrate reduced rates of severe lacerations, but more research is needed.

Insights from Recent Studies: Identifying Risk Factors

Recent studies have provided further insights into risk factors linked with perineal lacerations. In a retrospective analysis by Bączek et al. (2022), risk factors included maternal age, BMI, number of pregnancies and deliveries, gestational diabetes, vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), use of oxytocin in the second stage of childbirth, duration of the second stage of childbirth, body weight, and newborn head circumference. A prospective cohort study by Jansson et al. (2020) emphasized the significance of fetal weight exceeding 4000g, vacuum extraction, post-term delivery, maternal birth positions, heredity of pelvic floor dysfunction, induced labor, and fetal head circumference in perineal and vaginal tears.

Repair and Complications

Effective management of perineal tearing necessitates a thorough assessment of the extent and involved anatomical structures. Suture techniques vary depending on the laceration degree. Complications encompass bleeding, infection, pain, incontinence, and delayed return to sexual function. Long-term consequences, such as urinary or anal incontinence, can significantly impact a woman's quality of life.

Significance and Enhanced Healthcare Outcomes

Perineal trauma profoundly affects women's physical and psychological well-being. Addressing and validating concerns are pivotal aspects of postpartum care. Healthcare teams should embrace strategies to prevent perineal trauma. Clinicians must recognize the importance of comprehensive care, not only during labor but also in the postpartum period, to ensure the well-being of women who have experienced perineal lacerations.


As medical knowledge advances, the approach to perineal care during childbirth continues to evolve. Evidence-based practices and tailored care play a central role in minimizing perineal lacerations and their associated complications. By integrating the latest research findings into clinical practice, healthcare providers can contribute to safer and more satisfactory childbirth experiences for women.


Bączek, G., Rzońca, E., Sys, D., Rychlewicz, S., Durka, A., Rzońca, P., & Bień, A. (2022). Spontaneous Perineal Trauma during Non-Operative Childbirth—Retrospective Analysis of Perineal Laceration Risk Factors. International Journal of Environm



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